Wednesday, December 25, 2013

Bethlehem, Part 2: Midnight Mass

Last week we received notification through our work e-mail accounts that the consulate had received ten complimentary tickets to accompany the Consul General to the Christmas Eve Midnight Mass held at Bethlehem's Church of the Nativity.

Being Jewish, we found very little religious incentive to go.  However, there is definitely something to be said for once in a lifetime opportunities.  I'm also a sucker for limited edition items, and ten sounded pretty limited to me.  We threw our names in the pot and were mildly surprised to learn Monday afternoon that both of our names were drawn.  Once we thought about it, however, we realized that it probably wasn't as highly a coveted ticket as we had imagined, as people would likely (and rightly) wish to spend Christmas Eve with their families instead of fighting crowds for seating and/or standing room at an hours-long service in a church 40 minutes away from home.  But, as Christmas wasn't an issue for us, we were more than happy to go.

We met up with the eight other lucky suckers winners at the consulate at 10:30PM on Christmas Eve and were promptly shuttled over to Bethlehem, where we received a police escort right to the front curb of the church.  We felt very glamorous as we exited the motorcade vehicles and walked the short distance to the church door, camera lights flashing as if we were arriving on the red carpet of the Academy Awards.  To say there was a strong media presence is a bit of an understatement.  Perhaps I ended up on television somewhere?

We were handed a service program as we entered the church and, as we took our places along the lefthand aisle shortly before 11:30PM, were disheartened to discover that the program was a full 140 pages long.  Thankfully, the program featured multiple languages, so it wan't that bad (Not bad at all; We were walking back to the van by 1:45AM).

The majority of the service was conducted in Latin, so I can't comment much beyond saying everyone appeared to have good diction and that I enjoyed the singing.  I will say that it was very heartwarming to see so many people of a shared faith congregating to sing songs of praise on one of their holiest of holy nights, at their faith's holiest of holy sites.

President of the Palestinian National Authority Mahmoud Abbas was present.  I got a photo of the back of his head.  He's the white haired individual, dead center, behind all of the nuns.  This is a photo taken as he was leaving the service.  I'm ashamed to say that I had a clear shot of him entering, but hesitated.  There was lots of rabble-rabble going on as he entered, but not a lot of camera flashing, and I missed my cue.  TJ and I later debated which of us was to blame, but the outcome is still unclear.  (Since this is my blog, I can state with finality that it lies with him.  Ha!)  Abbas was there primarily to hear the homily delivered by Fouad Twal, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem.  The transcript can be found here.

At the end of the service, a procession marched down the center aisle on its way to the Grotto of the Nativity, where a sculpture of the baby Jesus, carried by Twal, was to be placed.   I managed to snap one photo of what I *think* was the back of the baby's head.  But probably not.  We didn't make our way down to the grotto, as time did not permit such an activity, but photos of it taken previously can be found in my last entry.

We emerged from the Church to find a captivating view of the Manger Square Christmas Tree.  Although we had seen it on our last trip to Bethlehem, I was not prepared for the gut-punch of awesome that an evening view of it would provide.

It was a beautiful moment in time.  It's something I would never have known that I wanted to experience until it happened, and now I'm ticking it off of my bucket list.

It was (shamefully) the first religious service that we have attended since arriving in Jerusalem, but I know it won't be our last.  While not awakening any long-lost Christian part of my soul, it has certainly sparked a desire to continue my Jewish learning. 

Probably not what the church intended for the service, but it is what it is.  And I thank them for that.

Tuesday, December 24, 2013

Bethlehem, Part One

We awoke bright-eyed and bushy-tailed on the morning of Saturday, December 7th, eager to begin our next adventure:  a six hour round-trip guided tour of nearby Bethlehem. 

Annnd, I'm going to pause right there.  This is my first post since arriving in Jerusalem that will really touch on religion.  I suspect a lot of them will, and because of that I just want to provide a little disclaimer right here, right now.

I was born into what, by process of elimination, would be considered a Christian home.  I am Jewish by choice.  That doesn't mean that I think Judaism is the one, true religion and everyone else is wrong.  It simply means that it is the one that works best for me.  As I write over the next two years, just assume that there are a lot of adjectives like "allegedly," "supposedly" and "theoretically" implied in my writing.  Who am I to say what did or didn't happen (and where!), often to the contrary of another person's faith? Nobody, that's who.  

Whew!  We now resume this Bethlehem blog, already in progress.  

Our first stop on this whirlwind tour was The Church of the Nativity, a basilica commissioned in 327AD by Constantine and his mother Helena over the site popularly thought to be the birthplace of Jesus of Nazareth.  The original was destroyed during the Samaritan Revolts and eventually replaced in 565AD by the current structure.  The church adds to my collection of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and holds the distinction of being the first to be listed under Palestine (By UNESCO, not by me.  Though by me, too, I guess.).  

One enters the church through a tiny little door known as "The Door of

Humility," because you have to bow in order to enter.  Or you could Limbo.  That probably works, too, and is often humiliating.  The original purpose of the entryway's small size, however, was more pious than practical:  it helped deter vandals and invaders.

Once inside, you will find yourself pushed, shoved, and trampled over by pilgrims and tourists fighting for space that doesn't exist.  It's CROWDED.  Chaos ensues as tour guide speaks over tour guide, cameras flash, children find ways to run despite there being no space to do so, and the devout try to light candles and find a moment's peace despite their surroundings.  

Toward the back of the sanctuary you will find a staircase leading to the Grotto of the Nativity, where Jesus is said to have been born.  The exact spot is marked by a 14-pointed silver star set into a marble floor and surround by lamps.  The altar is denominationally neutral.  It is also crowded.  This is a picture of TJ standing in front of it.  I promise.

Another altar in the Grotto, maintained by the Roman Catholics, marks the site where Mary laid the newborn baby in the manger.  After posing for this picture, I stood and hit my head on the ceiling and said "Ow!"  Only….I don't think I said ow.  I think I may have, possibly, said something you shouldn't say in a church.  Oops.

Adjoining the Church of the Nativity is The Church of St. Catherine, a Roman Catholic church built in a modern Gothic revival style.  

This is the church where the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem celebrate the world famous Christmas Eve Midnight Mass.   [SPOILER ALERT!  There will be more on that tomorrow!]

The Tree of Jesse (aka Call of David), on display at the entrance, was blessed by Pope Benedict XVI during his 2009 trip to the Holy Land.  The Bas-relief represents the visit of the prophet Samuel to Jesse (seated, surrounded by seven of his sons).  On the opposite side is David, the youngest son, arriving with his flock.  The angel reminds us that the promises made to David have been fulfilled with the Incarnation of the Son of God. The tree symbolizes the genealogy of Christ, who is situated at the highness place in the sculpture. 

Beneath The Church of St. Catherine lay a a series of caverns that make up the remains of an ancient monastery.  The caves contain a number of chapels, one dedicated to St. Jerome, who spent 30 years translating the Hebrew Bible form Hebrew into Latin, and the New Testament from Greek into Latin. 

Next on the agenda was the Milk Grotto Chapel.  It is said that Mary and Joseph stopped here to feed baby Jesus while journeying to Egypt.  Legend tells that a drop of Mary's breast milk touched the ground, causing the red rock of the grotto to turn white.  It is said that the rock has healing properties, were it to be ground up and consumed.  Make of that what you will, but I know what *I* think.  Nevertheless, if you google this place you will find all sorts of miracles that the grotto has caused to occur.  There's not much to the place other than a nifty sculpture of the Holy Family and a few images of Mary breastfeeding the baby.  Oh.  There were also some young female tourists at the entrance arching their backs and poking their breasts out seductively as they posed for pictures.  Way to keep it classy, people.

We next made our way to Manger Square, passing numerous craftsman shops along the way.  Tourism is the leading industry in Bethlehem, and many people make their livings carving intricately detailed nativity scenes and selling them in their souvenir shops.

Manger Square is of course named after the manger in which Jesus was born, and the Church of the Nativity lies at the edge of the square.  This being December, Christmas is exploding all over Bethlehem, and Manger Square is the focal point of the celebration, with a giant Christmas Tree and a beautiful manger taking center stage.  Bethlehem's only mosque, The Mosque of Omar, lies across the square.  Named after the second caliph, Omar Ibn al-Khattab, the mosque was built in 1860 on land provided by the Greek Orthodox Church in honor of Omar, the Prophet Mohammed's father-in-law.  In 637, Omar took Jerusalem from the Byzantines and stopped for prayer at the Christian Church of the Nativity.  He declared that the church would remain a Christian shrine and that Christians, even under Muslim rule, would remain free to practice their faith.

The tour portion of our journey concluded at Sheperd's Field, located two kilometers outside of Bethlehem near the town of Beit Sahour (بيت ساحو).  Christians believe this to be the site at which an angel appeared to the shepherds and announced the birth of Jesus.

8 Now there were in the same country shepherds living out in the fields, keeping watch over their flock by night.  9 And behold, an angel of the Lord stood before them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were greatly afraid.  10 Then the angel said to them, "do not be afraid, for behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy which will be to all people.  11 For there is born to you this day in the city of David a Savior, who is Christ the Lord.  12 And this will be the sign to you:  You will find a Babe wrapped in swaddling cloths, lying in a manger."  13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God and saying:  14  "Glory to God in the highest, And on earth peace, goodwill toward men!"  

-Luke  2:8-14

The main attraction here is the Church of the Angels (above), a modestly sized, domed house of worship featuring three paintings each depicting a different aspect of the birth narrative from Luke 2.

Underneath the church is another church, built in a cave by Saint Helena in 325AD.  This cavern is thought to have been the shelter used by the shepherds on that fateful night.  

The tour concluded with a short (though it felt like it lasted forever.  FOREVER!) stop at one of the tackiest gift shops I've ever seen.  So tacky that they even sell postcards of their shop.  So tacky that they replaced the baby Jesus with a disco ball.  You know how Christmas has become so commercialized with decorations going on sale right after Halloween and Black Friday consumingThanksgiving?  That's kind of what this place does to the Holy Land.  Everything was priced in US Dollars.  I couldn't believe it.  They did offer a 30% discount, though.  But guess what.  It's still more expensive, and of a lower quality, than just about anything you will find in Old City Jerusalem.  There, that's your PSA for the day.

After the attempted tourist exploitation, we crossed the street and settled in for a delicious lunch of wine, meatballs, smoked chicken, and hummus at the Grotto Restaurant. I didn't take any pictures of the food because it was served family style at a table of eight and those hungry vultures weren't playing.  I was too busy fighting for food, so you'll just have to trust me that it looked (and tasted) amazing.  Speaking of amazing, how about that dining view?

That wrapped up our day in Bethlehem.  I headed home and promptly started writing.  Then I took a break.  Then it began to snow (Not that same day…it was a long break).  Then the snow melted.  Then I continued taking my break.  But, lo!  We won two tickets to the Christmas Eve Midnight Mass!  

As chronological writing demands, I simply had to get this one all wrapped up in a pretty little bow for you all so that tomorrow I can regale you all with tales of this evening's adventures!

Hope everyone has a safe and happy Christmas Eve (or as us non-Christians like to call it, Tuesday night).  See you tomorrow!

Saturday, November 30, 2013

Caesarea, Part One

Ever since arriving in Jerusalem I've felt absolutely defeated by how much ground there is to cover and by how seemingly little we've done to scratch the surface.  I have found myself on numerous occasions exploring a museum or a town or a market and thinking "Gee, that was fun…but I didn't finish.  And I can't write about it if I didn't finish."  Or doing something and thinking "That was awesome, but not first-post-about-Jerusalem awesome."  Like anyone is sitting on pins and needles waiting for me to type out a masterpiece.  Well, nobody save for TJ, who just wants to retire early and live off of my millions.

Regardless, all this worrying has accomplished is two months of presence in the Holy Land and four posts that don't even come close to documenting my life here.  So let's get started, shall we?

We woke up this morning and realized we wanted to not be in Jerusalem today.  While trying to decide what to do, our friend Yehuda sent a Facebook message indicating some level of boredom on his part as well.  TJ asked where I would like to go, and I said the first city that popped into my head: Caesarea.  

Caesarea was built by King Herod (37 - 4 BCE) on the remains of a Phoenician town, Strato's Tower (which sounds more like an building than a town to me), and named in honor of his patron, Agustus Caesar.  Initially, Caesarea's residents enjoyed all the pleasures of the Roman world:  abundant clean water, bathhouses, and entertainment venues.  

Caesarea became the seat of the Roman governors around 6 CE and the status of the city's Jewish population quickly began to deteriorate.  66 CE saw a rebellion agains the Romans.   By 70 CE, Jerusalem had fallen and Caesarea was considered to be the Roman capital of Judea. 

Caesarea gained status as an important center of Christian scholarship during the Byzantine period, and its harbor became the gateway to the Holy Land for thousands of pilgrims.  The Jewish community grew and religious academies were founded.  

What came next was a series of conflicts in which the city found itself controlled by Muslims, Crusaders and even the French.  The city was abandoned following the Mameluke conquest of 1265, though Ottoman authorities eventually settled a group of Bosnian Muslim refugees there.

Annnnd now you know everything that I read on the plaque located at the entrance of Caesarea National Park.  Let's head inside.  

First up was the Roman theatre, built between 22-10 B.C.  The first of its kind in Israel, the already impressive amphitheater underwent several alterations throughout the Roman and Byzantine periods, including the conversion of the orchestra into a large basin for nautical games sometime during the 3rd or 4th century A.D.  Apparently, the theatre was home to some debaucherous fare, as it was ultimately closed by an offended regime of Christian Byzantine rulers during the 5th century A.D.

Yehuda informed us that in today's post-excavation world, Herod's ancient theatre is often used as a performance venue for popular Israeli and international artists.  It appears to be a popular locale, as a little on-line research told me that the nearby port hosts the annual Caesarea Jazz Festival, a three-night event featuring leading international artists.  Speaking of the port, lets draw our attention to the horizon where, from the top steps of the amphitheater, one can find a gorgeous view of the Mediterranean Sea.

Descending the theater steps, our attentions were drawn to platform containing several examples of Roman and Byzantine statuary.  Most of Caesarea's statues were found headless during the excavation process.  Roman statuary, representing emperors, deities and local dignitaries, remained an important part of the urban ornament of the Byzantine city, and was sometimes displayed in Christian contexts alongside Christian symbols.

Beyond Herod's Theater you will notice a rocky point overlooking the sea.  Once upon a time, this was the home of the Promontory Palace, a behemoth of a structure built during Roman times.  Among the ruins is a pool, potentially used as a fish market.

In its heyday the palace took up a whopping 4 acres of real estate and extended out into the sea.  Situated within site of both the theater and the hippodrome, the palace was a subtle reminder to the crowds of the might and generosity of the ruler who provided the spectacles.  

In 58 A.D. the Apostle Paul was sent to Caesarea to be tried by the governor under false charges of desecrating the Temple.  It is speculated the the hearing occurred within the walls of this very palace.  Not satisfied with the outcome of this meeting, Paul exercised his right as a Roman citizen and demanded a hearing in the Emperor's Court in Rome.  He went on to be executed for the crime.  We, however, went on to the aforementioned hippodrome. 

The hippodrome, or the Herodian Amphitheater, was famous for its chariot races, which ran for seven laps along a course 250m long by 50m wide.  Races began at the starting gates and ended in front of the dignitaries' tribune.  Either end of the course featured two turning points with sharp curves that posed incredible danger for the charioteers and their horses.  Needless to say, seats at each end of the amphitheater were highly coveted.  

Just past the hippodrome are the remains of a bathhouse, the only important remain of the private wing of the Byzantine governor's palace, which was almost entirely destroyed by the construction of medieval fortifications.  Check out that mosaic tile.  Isn't it gorgeous?!?  The remains of a public bathhouse featuring many more mosaics can also be found on the grounds, but we unfortunately ran out of time before the park closed.

Stepping outside of the gates to the national park, we were shocked to find that we were standing in…more ruins.  

The Bosnian Mosque, constructed by the Turks for the Bosnian refugees in the late 19th century, is an easily identifiable fixture down by Crusader Harbor...

…while directly across and uphill you can find the partially excavated remains of several structures clumped together side by side:  

The Crusader Church (13th Century) - Construction was undertaken by France's King Louix IX but never completed.  A smaller church eventually took its place.  The Cathedral of St. Peter, formerly the city's Great Mosque, stood northeast of it but was destroyed in 1187. 

The Temple of Caesar, built when the city was founded 22 - 10 BCE - Herod's temple stood on this site.  Archaeologists are still trying to identify the temple's foundation beneath later buildings.  

A Christian church stood on the site of Herod's temple in the 6hh century.    The church was octagonal in shape like Jerusalem's Dome of the Rock and the building contained floors and walls made of marble.  

On the other side of the ruins we found the Postern Gate, a remnant of the Crusader Period (12th - 13th centuries) that served as a secret entrance/exit by way of the moat.

The view from the top of the moat (or rather the wall that looked down into the moat) gave us a glimpse of the public bathhouse, which served as a reminder that we couldn't go inside…which served as a reminder that it was getting late and therefore time for dinner. 

We walked over to the harbor where we dined on fish and chips (TJ and me) and lamb kabobs (Yehuda) at Port Cafe, Lonely Planet's sole dining recommendation for the city.  Not a bad recommendation at all.  The food was delicious, and the ocean view was amazing.

Sadly, the day ends there.  (Well, there plus a two hour drive.)  But it was the perfect end to a perfect day.  Although we spent but a few short hours in Caesarea, I feel as if we experienced a lot.  It was the first excursion that had me saying "Must blog tonight!"  It's inspired me to go back through my photos and perhaps post about some prior experiences.  

It's definitely inspired me to return to Caesarea one day soon, hence the "Part One" aspect of the post title.